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Abrasive features and application


code

Type

Features

Usage

A


Browm fused alumina


High hardness and toughness


It is suitable for grinding medium and high tensile strength

Metal such as ordinary carbon steel,alloy steels,malleableCast iron, hard bronze,etc.

WA

white fused alumina

Its hardness is hight than that of A.its grains are easily broken.the edges of the grains are sharp and of excellent cutting performance.only small quantity of heat is created use.

It ls used for grinding harder material and metals sensitive to heat such as chilled steel.high carbon steel,ordinary high speed steel,alloy steel.it is mainly suitable for the grinding and forming grinding of instruments,cutting tools,mouldings,gears,thresds,thin-wall parts,etc.

PA



Pink fused alumina

Its hardness is close to,but touguness higher than thatof WA.the edges of its grains are sharp andcan be kept well.it is also excellent durability.

It is suitable for the grinding of chilled steel,cutting tools and workpieces of alloy steel as well as the precision grinding of messuring tolls and parts of instruments and appratus,etc.

SA


Monocystalline fused alumina

Its hardness is higher than of A and WA.It grains and ball-shaped single crystals with outstanding multi-corner edges and strong impact strength,etc

It is suitable for the grinding of stainless steel,high canadium-high speed teel and the workpieces in high toughness ans being easily-deformed and burnt.

MA


Microcrystalline fused alumina

Its grains are composed of small crystals in high toughness and strong strength ans of excellent self-sharpening performance.

It is suitable for the grinding of ball-bearings,stainless steel and special nodular cast iron as well as forming grinding,infeeding grinding and other precision grinding,etc.

A/WA

Mixture of WA and A

It posseses the advantages of both A and WA

It is suitablefor the grinding of nodular cast iron crankshaft and other workpieces.

GC

Green silicon carbide

It is in high hardness and brittle.its grain edges are sharp and it is if excellent capacity of heat-transmission.

It is suitable for the grinding of cutting tools and workpieces of hard alloy,and non-ferrous metal and non-metal materials,etc

C

Black silicon   carbide

It is high hardness and brittle. Its grain edges are sharp and it is of a certain capacity of heat-transmission.

It is suitable for the grinding of non-ferrous and non-metal materials.

CA

Ceramic-ceramic abrasives

The crystal size is very small,only about 0.3m.it has good self-sharpening and cut efficiency.and it isn t apt to burn the working piece.the durability and serving life of the grinding wheels are 2-5 times that of common.

It is suitable for alloy tool steel,high speed tool steel,heat-resisiting steel,bearing steel,stainless steel,etc,wtich are difficult processed by common abrasive materials.


Grit sizes

Usage

4、5、6、8、10、12、14、16、20、22、24、30

For rough grinding and cutling

36、40、46、54

For common semi-precision grinding

60、70、80、90、100

For common fine grinding

120、150、180、220、240、w63、w50、w40、w28、w20

For polishing and threading

W14、w10、w7、w5、w3.5、w2.5、w1.5、w1.0、w0.5

For mirror-surface grinding and finer polishing



Big

Super

sode

Soft

Medium

soft

Medium

Medium

hardness

hardnessSuper

hardness

Smail

code

D.E.F

Soft1

Soft2

Soft3

Medium

soft1

Medium

soft2

Medium

1

Medium

2

Medium

Hard-

Ness1

Medium

Hard-

Ness2

Medium

Hard-

Ness3

Hard-

Ness1

Hard-

Ness2

Y

Code

G

H

J

K

L

M

N

P

Q

R

S

T



Recommended applications of wheels in the aspect of grain size


Grit

Recommended Appocation

13#~24#

Snagging,Deburring and Cutting –off,etc

36#~46#

Surface,Cylindrial and Cenntreless gring

60#~100#

Precision Grinding and Cutter Sharpening

120#~W20

Precision Grinding,Honing and Thread Grinding

W20 and more

And finer

Lapping and Mirror Finish Grinding



CHINA

JAPAN JLS

R6001-1973


United States

ANSI(76)

Europe

PEPA(71)

GB2477-81

GB2477-81

W63

63~50

63~50

240# 87.5~73.5

240# 79.5~31.5

F230/53~53±3

W50

50~40

50~40

280# 73.5~62

280# 73~24.5

F240/45~44.5±2

W40

40~28

40~28

320# 62~52.5

320# 62.5~19.5

F280/37~36.5±1.5

W28

28~20

28~20

360# 52.5~44

360# 50~1445

F320/29~29.2±1.5

W20

20~14

20~14

400# 44~37

400# 40~10.5

F360/23~22.8±1.5

W14

14~10

14~10

500# 37~31

500# 34.6~8

F400/17~17.3±1

W10

10~7

10~7

600# 30 ~31

600# 32~13

F500/13~12.5±1

W7

7~5

7~5

700# 26~22

700# 27.5~9.8

F600/9~9.3±1

W5

5~3.5

5~3.5

800# 22 ~18

1000# 24.5~6.8

F800/7~6.5±1

W3.5

3.5~2.5

1000# 18~14.5

1200# 20.5~4.5

F1000/5~4.5±0.8

W2.5

2.5~1.5

1200# 14.5~11.5


F1200/3~3±0.5

W1.5

1.5~1.0

1500# 1.5~8.9



W1.0

1.0~0.5

2000# 8.9~7.1



W0.5

0.5and more

2500# 7.1~5.9






3000# 5.9~4.7




The selection of abrasive material


species

Code no.

color

features

selection

Brown

fused

alumina

A

sepia

High rigidity, strong flexibility,low price,can be used widely

Suitable for normal steel grinding,rough grinding, higher anti-pulls intensity metal as well,carbon steel, alloy steel,malleable cast iron hard bronze normal grinding,cut-off, free grinding

White aluminum oxide

WA

white

Higher rigidity and weaker flexibility than A. good grinding function,low grinding heat

Suitable for the work pieces made of materials: Chilled steel,high-speed steel,highcarbon steel,which of strong intensity,high hardness grinding,also used to process thread,gear,components

Chromium

corundum

PA

Pink,

rose-red

Sharp cutting, good edges holdout,durable,stronger flexibility than WA

Suitable for form grinding,knives,measuring instrument,measuring appliance components,thread work piece components,micro finishing and other high smooth finish surface processing

Green

silicon

carbide

GC

green

Only no harder than boron carbide and diamond,friable, its girt is sharp,and thermal conductivity

Suitable for grinding hard alloy,optical glass, vitrify gem, agate,honing cylinder sleeve and other hard friable materials

Black

silicon

carbide

C

black

Harder than corundum, crisper,less flexibility

Suitable for process weak tensile strength metallic and nonmetallic material,i.e.cast iron, brass,aluminum, stone material, wood material,glass,vitrify,fireproof material,rubber,leather,plastic and so on

Single

alundum

SA

Light

yellow

Harder, more flexible than A,WA,single pellet spherical crystal(type),and anti-crumbliness

Suitable for grinding stainless steel, highvanadium highspeed steeland high toughness hard materials and distorting and burning work


The selection of hardness of grinding wheel


Selection principle

Reason

When grinding hard materials,choose soft abrasive tools,otherwise,choose hard abrasive tools.

Hard material is difficult to grind,and grit can be easily rubbed obtusely,so choose softer tool. Soft material is good at grinding, and grit may not rub obtusely easily, so choose harder tools.

Cut-in grinding external outer circle should be chosen softer abrasive tools then longitudinal feed grinding outer circle.

Avoid burning work pieces.

When forming grinding and grinding discontinuous surface, choose hard tool.

Guarantee right geometrical shape.

Plane grinding into the abrasive hardness should be soft,end face grinding should be softer than circular grinding. When grinding the work piece and abrasive, large contact surface or large amount of feed, grinding wheel should be soft.

Lapping tool and work piece contact is large, abrasive easily wear, grinding heat increase, easy to burn the work piece.

Internal grinding should choose harder tools than the outer circle and plane grinding.

In grinding, grinding tool linear velocity is low, so should choose higer hardness.

Sharpening knives should choose softer grinding wheel.

When used for sharpening knives,the work piece radiation condition is not good, may easily burn out or crack,so choose H-L hardness.

The hardness of high-speed grinding wheel should be 1-2 grade lower than normal grinding wheel.

The grinding wheel rotating at high speed under high dynamic hardness,so the hardness should be lower.

Grinding with coolant is higher than dry grinding.

Dry grinding work piece easy fever, choose 1-2 level softer grinding wheel than the coolant.


How to choose grinding wheel grain


The grain of the grinding wheel is the measurement of grit size. The choice of it has a direct influence on surface roughness and grinding efficiency of work piece. In general, high grinding efficiency use coarse-grained grinding, but the surface roughness of the work piece is poor. With a fine-grained grinding wheel, the surface roughness of work piece is better, but the grinding efficiency is low. In short, on the premise of meet the requirement of the work piece surface roughness, in order to ensure higher grinding efficiency, granularity coarser grinding tool should be chosen.


Grain No.

12#-30#

36#-54#

60#-100#

120#-W20

WA20

Scope of

application

Snagging steel,

malleable cast pieces,

leather,wood,

steel billet

For planar,

outer circle,

inner circle,

centreless

grinding

coarse grinding

For the inner circle,cylindrical,planar,centerless,tool grinder and various special grinding machine,semi-finish grinding

For finegrinding,

honing,thread

For ultra fine
grinding,

fine
grinding,

mirror grinding

Rough grinding

Half-fine grinding

General fine grinding

Fine grinding

Super fine grinding


Grit sizes


Grit size of abrasive tools indicates the geometric dimensions of abrasive grains.abrasive grains can be divided into 41 grit No.in accordance with the dimensions of abrasive grains stipulated in china national standard.

The selection of grit sizes has direct influences on the surface roughness and cutting efficiency of workpieces.Generally,the wheels in big sizes possesses high cutting efficiency,but the surface roughness of the workpiece is worse.whereas the wheels in finer sizes possesses low cutting efficieny, but the surface roughness is better.in short,with the prerequisite of meeting requirements on the roughness,it is betterto select the abrasive tools of coarse grains to guarantee high cutting efficiency.


Hardness


The hardness of abrasive tools indicates the difficulty of abrasive grains falling off the surface of the abrasive tools in cutting.

1.Generally,the grinding wheels in soft hardness are used for cutting harder workpieces,whereas the wheels in a bit higher hardness are used for cutting soft workpieces.

2.In the process of cutting,if the workpieces is touched greatly or the feeding is large,it is available to select soft hardness.for forming-grinding,it is better to select the wheels in higher hardness to guarantee precision of the workpieces.

3.When grinding the workpieces with weak capcacity of heat-transmission and cutting tools,it is better to select softer hardness to avoid burning and annealing.

4.When grinding at high speed,it is better to select softer hardness;the hardness in dry grinding should be softer than that in wet grinding.

Zibo King Abrasives Co.,Ltd